Solar batteries are an essential component of solar panel systems, allowing for energy storage and utilization during periods of low sunlight or high energy demand. These batteries store and release electrical energy through complex chemical reactions, making them a crucial part of renewable energy systems. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the technical specifications, underlying physics, relevant theorems and formulas, as well as practical examples and numerical problems to provide a thorough understanding of solar batteries.
Technical Specifications of Solar Batteries

Nominal Voltage: The voltage at which a solar battery is designed to operate, typically 12V, 24V, or 48V. This voltage determines the compatibility with other components in the solar system, such as charge controllers and inverters.

Nominal Capacity: The amount of energy a solar battery can store, measured in amperehours (Ah) or kilowatthours (kWh). This capacity determines the overall energy storage capability of the system.

Depth of Discharge (DoD): The percentage of a solar battery’s capacity that can be safely discharged before recharging. A higher DoD allows for more usable capacity, but it may reduce the battery’s lifespan due to increased stress on the internal components.

Efficiency: The ratio of energy output to energy input, typically expressed as a percentage. Solar battery efficiency is crucial in determining the overall system efficiency and energy utilization.

Cycle Life: The number of charge/discharge cycles a solar battery can perform before its capacity drops below a certain threshold, usually 80%. This metric is essential in understanding the longterm viability and maintenance requirements of the battery.

Temperature Range: The range of temperatures in which a solar battery can safely operate without significant performance degradation. Extreme temperatures can have a detrimental effect on the battery’s lifespan and performance.

RoundTrip Efficiency: The ratio of the energy that can be used from a solar battery after being charged and discharged to the energy required to charge the battery. This efficiency metric accounts for both charging and discharging losses.

SelfDischarge Rate: The rate at which a solar battery loses its charge when not in use. This is an important consideration for systems that may experience extended periods of inactivity.

Charge/Discharge Rates: The maximum rates at which a solar battery can be charged and discharged without compromising its lifespan or safety. These rates are typically expressed in Crates, where 1C represents the current required to fully charge or discharge the battery in one hour.

Energy Density: The amount of energy a solar battery can store per unit of volume or weight, measured in Wh/L or Wh/kg. This metric is crucial for applications where space or weight is a concern, such as in portable or mobile solar systems.
Physics of Solar Batteries
Solar batteries store and release electrical energy through complex chemical reactions. The most common type of solar battery is the leadacid battery, which consists of lead plates immersed in a sulfuric acid electrolyte.
During the charging process, lead sulfate forms on the plates, and the electrolyte’s sulfuric acid concentration increases. This process stores electrical energy in the battery. During discharging, the lead sulfate is converted back to lead, and the electrolyte’s sulfuric acid concentration decreases, releasing the stored electrical energy.
The amount of energy a solar battery can store is determined by Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, which relate the amount of electrical charge passed through a material to the amount of substance that is chemically transformed. The energy stored in a solar battery can be calculated using the formula:
E = V × I × t
where:
– E is the energy (in watthours)
– V is the voltage (in volts)
– I is the current (in amperes)
– t is the time (in hours)
Theorems and Formulas
The following theorems and formulas are relevant to the understanding and analysis of solar batteries:

Coulomb’s Law: The amount of electrical charge (Q) that passes through a conductor is directly proportional to the current (I) and time (t):
Q = I × t 
Ohm’s Law: The relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R):
V = I × R 
Joule’s Law: The power (P) dissipated in a resistor is directly proportional to the current (I) and resistance (R):
P = I² × R 
Peukert’s Law: The relationship between a solar battery’s discharge rate and its capacity:
C = I^k × t
where:
– C is the capacity (in amperehours)
– I is the discharge current (in amperes)
– t is the discharge time (in hours)
– k is a constant that depends on the battery’s chemistry and design
 Nernst Equation: The relationship between the opencircuit voltage (V) of an electrochemical cell and the activities of the reactants and products:
V = V₀ – (RT/nF) × ln(Q)
where:
– V₀ is the standard cell potential
– R is the universal gas constant
– T is the absolute temperature
– n is the number of electrons transferred
– F is the Faraday constant
– Q is the reaction quotient
 Gibbs Free Energy: The maximum amount of work that can be extracted from a thermodynamic system at constant temperature and pressure:
ΔG = ΔH – T × ΔS
where:
– ΔG is the change in Gibbs free energy
– ΔH is the change in enthalpy
– T is the absolute temperature
– ΔS is the change in entropy
These theorems and formulas provide a foundation for understanding the underlying principles governing the behavior and performance of solar batteries.
Examples and Numerical Problems
Example 1: A solar battery has a nominal voltage of 12V and a nominal capacity of 200Ah. What is its energy storage capacity in watthours?
Solution:
Energy (E) = Voltage (V) × Capacity (I) × Time (t)
E = 12V × 200Ah = 2400Wh
Example 2: A solar battery has a roundtrip efficiency of 90%. If 1000Wh of energy is stored in the battery, how much energy can be used?
Solution:
Usable energy = Stored energy × Roundtrip efficiency
Usable energy = 1000Wh × 0.9 = 900Wh
Example 3: A solar battery has a cycle life of 1000 cycles at a 50% depth of discharge. If the battery has a nominal capacity of 200Ah, what is its usable capacity over its lifetime?
Solution:
Usable capacity = Nominal capacity × Depth of Discharge × Cycle life
Usable capacity = 200Ah × 0.5 × 1000 = 100,000Ah
Example 4: A solar battery has an energy density of 150 Wh/kg. If the battery weighs 20 kg, what is its total energy storage capacity?
Solution:
Energy storage capacity = Energy density × Weight
Energy storage capacity = 150 Wh/kg × 20 kg = 3000 Wh
Example 5: A solar battery is charged at a rate of 2C and discharged at a rate of 1C. If the battery has a nominal capacity of 100Ah, what are the maximum charge and discharge currents?
Solution:
Maximum charge current = 2C × 100Ah = 200A
Maximum discharge current = 1C × 100Ah = 100A
These examples demonstrate the application of the discussed theorems, formulas, and technical specifications to solve practical problems related to solar battery performance and energy storage.
References
 How Is Solar Panel Efficiency Measured? – Technical Articles
 Choosing the Right Size and Capacity for a Solar Battery System
 Quantifying selfconsumption linked to solar home battery systems: Statistical analysis and economic assessment
 Predicting battery end of life from solar offgrid system field data using machine learning
 Electrochemical Energy Storage for Renewable Sources and Grid Balancing
 Battery Energy Storage Systems for Renewable Energy Integration
 Modeling and Simulation of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Renewable Energy Applications
I am Subrata, Ph.D. in Engineering, more specifically interested in Nuclear and Energy science related domains. I have multidomain experience starting from Service Engineer for electronics drives and microcontroller to specialized R&D work. I have worked on various projects, including nuclear fission, fusion to solar photovoltaics, heater design, and other projects. I have a keen interest in the science domain, energy, electronics and instrumentation, and industrial automation, primarily because of the wide range of stimulating problems inherited to this field, and every day it’s changing with industrial demand. Our aim here is to exemplify these unconventional, complex science subjects in an easy and understandable to the point manner.