Professional Tips on Optimizing Voltage Selection for Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries

Optimizing voltage selection for charging lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial for ensuring their longevity, safety, and performance. This comprehensive guide delves into the technical details and professional tips to help you achieve the best charging outcomes for your LIBs.

Battery Charge Curve Prediction

Accurately predicting the battery charge curve is the foundation for optimizing voltage selection. A recent study compared the ability of human experts and machine learning algorithms to quantify the aging mechanisms of batteries. The researchers developed a methodology that can predict the entire constant-current cycling curve with an error of less than 2% using only 10% of the charge curve as input. This approach was further validated across other battery chemistries, such as LiCoO2-based batteries, achieving a prediction error of around 2% using only 5% of the charge curve as input.

The key aspects of this charge curve prediction methodology include:

  1. Feature Extraction: The researchers extracted relevant features from the partial charging curve, such as voltage, current, and time, to capture the battery’s electrochemical and thermal characteristics.
  2. Machine Learning Models: They employed various machine learning techniques, including shallow neural networks (NNs), deep learning (DL), support vector machines (SVMs), and Gaussian process regression (GPR), to predict the entire charge curve.
  3. Performance Evaluation: The prediction accuracy was evaluated using metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R^2), demonstrating the robustness of the approach.

By leveraging this charge curve prediction methodology, you can optimize the voltage selection for charging LIBs by accurately estimating the battery’s state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) throughout the charging process.

Charging Curve Characteristics

professional tips on optimizing voltage selection for charging

The charging curve of a LIB is characterized by its voltage-time (V-t) and current-time (I-t) profiles. During constant-current charging, the voltage and current are stored by the battery management system (BMS) at a given time step. The partial charging curve can then be captured by setting a voltage sampling window.

Key characteristics of the charging curve include:

  1. Voltage Profile: The voltage profile during constant-current charging typically exhibits a linear increase followed by a plateau region as the battery approaches full charge.
  2. Current Profile: The current profile during constant-current charging remains relatively constant until the battery reaches a certain voltage, at which point the current begins to taper off.
  3. Sampling Window: The partial charging curve can be captured by setting a voltage sampling window, which allows for efficient data collection and processing.

Understanding these charging curve characteristics is essential for optimizing the voltage selection during the charging process, as it enables accurate estimation of the battery’s SOC and SOH.

Data Processing and Pre-estimation

To improve the estimation performance of machine learning models, the data used for training and validation must be carefully processed and pre-estimated. One approach is to generate a more balanced source domain by trimming the distribution of samples in the original source domain.

The key steps in this data processing and pre-estimation approach include:

  1. Bin Optimization: The number of samples in each bin is optimized using a component of the objective function, k, and a weight corresponding to the kth component, α.
  2. Pre-estimation: The pre-estimates of various machine learning models, such as shallow NNs, DL, SVMs, and GPR, are generated and evaluated using metrics like mean, standard deviation, and quartile.
  3. Selective Integration: The proposed framework selectively integrates the pre-estimates of the trained models to generate a reliable SOH estimate, using the lower and upper quartile operators to determine the final choices.

By applying these data processing and pre-estimation techniques, you can improve the accuracy and robustness of the machine learning models used for SOC and SOH estimation, ultimately leading to better voltage selection for charging LIBs.

State-of-Health (SOH) Estimation

Accurate estimation of the battery’s SOH is crucial for optimizing voltage selection during the charging process. The proposed framework for SOH estimation selectively integrates the pre-estimates of deep neural networks (DNNs) to generate a reliable SOH estimate.

The key steps in this SOH estimation approach include:

  1. Pre-estimate Evaluation: Mean, standard deviation, and quartile metrics are used to evaluate the pre-estimates of each trained DNN.
  2. Selective Integration: The retaining DNNs are the final choices of the proposed framework for each estimate, and the indexes of the final choices can be formulated as a function of the lower quartile operator and the upper quartile operator.
  3. Performance Metrics: The SOH estimation accuracy is evaluated using metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination (R^2).

By implementing this SOH estimation framework, you can accurately track the battery’s health status and optimize the voltage selection for charging to extend the battery’s lifespan and maintain its performance.

Battery Cycling and Dataset Generation

To develop and validate the machine learning models for SOC and SOH estimation, a comprehensive dataset of battery cycling data is required. Researchers have employed the following approach to generate this dataset:

  1. Battery Testing: Batteries are tested in thermal chambers at different temperatures, and an ARBIN BT2000 battery test system is used to cycle the batteries.
  2. Charging Curve Extraction: The charging curves extracted from the constant-current charging phase of the cycles are integrated into the datasets.
  3. Dataset Diversity: The dataset includes a wide range of battery chemistries, cycling conditions, and aging mechanisms to ensure the robustness of the machine learning models.

By creating a diverse and representative dataset, you can train and validate the machine learning models used for optimizing voltage selection during the charging process.

Machine Learning Techniques

Various machine learning techniques have been employed for SOC and SOH estimation, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. These techniques include:

  1. Shallow Neural Networks (NNs): Shallow NNs can provide relatively fast and accurate SOC and SOH estimation, but they may have limited ability to capture complex nonlinear relationships in the data.
  2. Deep Learning (DL): DL models, such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and long short-term memory (LSTMs), can effectively capture the temporal and nonlinear characteristics of battery behavior, leading to improved estimation accuracy.
  3. Support Vector Machines (SVMs): SVMs can handle high-dimensional input features and provide robust performance, but they may require careful hyperparameter tuning.
  4. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR): GPR models can provide probabilistic estimates of SOC and SOH, accounting for uncertainty in the data, but they may have higher computational complexity compared to other techniques.

When selecting the appropriate machine learning technique for your application, consider factors such as the size and complexity of your dataset, the required estimation accuracy, and the computational resources available.

By leveraging these professional tips and techniques, you can optimize the voltage selection for charging your lithium-ion batteries, ensuring their longevity, safety, and performance.


  1. Su Laisuo, Zhang Shuyan, McGaughey Alan J. H., Reeja‐Jayan B., Manthiram Arumugam. “Battery Charge Curve Prediction via Feature Extraction and Supervised Machine Learning.” Advanced Energy Materials, 2023. Link
  2. “Total Charge Management of Electric Vehicles.” California Energy Commission, 2021. Link
  3. “Deep learning to estimate lithium-ion battery state of health without full charging cycles.” Nature, 2023. Link
  4. Ren Zhong, Du Changqing. “A review of machine learning state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation algorithms for lithium-ion batteries.” Journal of Energy Storage, 2023. Link