NH2OH Lewis Structure& Characteristics: 17 Complete Facts

NH2OH is a white crystalline solid having a molar mass of 33.030 g/mol. Let us discuss some facts about the NH2OH in detail below.

NH2OH(Hydroxylamine) is a hygroscopic substances which decomposes by atmospheric moisture. It easily decomposes in aqueous solution. It acts as a nucleophilic reagent.

Hydroxylamine is sparingly soluble in ether, benzene and chloroform. Let us discuss shape, angle, hybridization, lone pairs of NH2OH and its other facts below.

How to draw NH2OH lewis structure

NH2OH Lewis structure consists of one oxygen, one nitrogen and three Hydrogen atom which are bonded by single bond. Let us study NH2OH Lewis structure in detail.

Step 1:  Determination of total number of valence electrons

NH2OH Lewis structure contains total 14 electron in its outermost shell. In the outermost shell six electrons are present in the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms contains five and one valence electron respectively. Total number of valence electrons within NH2OH is 5+1(2)+6+1=14.

Step 2:  Find the center atom of the molecule

Nitrogen is placed as a center atom because the electronegative value of nitrogen is less compared to oxygen atom. Hydrogen is not placed as a center atom because it has only one electron in the outermost shell so bonding with other atom cannot be possible.

Step 3:  Place the two electrons between the atoms

Central nitrogen atom is surrounded by hydrogen atom as well as OH group. Place two electrons between N-H, N-O and O-H bonds.

Step 4:  Put non-bonded electrons to complete the octet

In the Lewis structure of NH2OH, hydrogen atom has two electrons. To complete the octet, place four electrons on the oxygen atom and two electrons on the nitrogen atom.

Lewis structure of NH2OH
Lewis structure of NH2OH

NH2OH lewis structure resonance

Representation of two or more equivalent structure for a single Lewis structure is called resonance structure.

Resonance structure for the NH2OH Lewis structure is not possible. The complete octet configuration of N and O atoms makes the molecule cannot accepts one more electron. So, we cannot draw equivalent structure for this molecule.

NH2OH lewis structure shape

The shape of the molecule is determined by number of electrons group, lone pair of electron and position of nucleus. Let us study about shape of hydroxylamine.

The shape of the NH2OH is trigonal pyramid. The presence of one lone pair electrons and three covalent bonds present in central nitrogen atom makes trigonal pyramid shape. This molecule follows AX3E generic formula by VSEPR theory.

NH2OH lewis structure formal charge

Formal charge is the charge in which electrons present in the chemical bonds are equally shared between the atoms. The following equation defines formal charge of the atom.

The formal charge of NH2OH is zero. Formal charge= [No. of valence electrons]-{[No. of lone pair electrons] + 1/2[total No. of bonding electrons]}

The Formal charge of

  • Oxygen= 6-{4+1/2(4)= 0
  • Nitrogen =5-{2+1/2(6)=0
  • Hydrogen =1-{0+1/2(2)}=0

All atoms present in the hydroxylamine gets formal charge equal to zero. Therefore, overall formal charge of this molecule is zero.

NH2OH bond angle

The angle formed between the two bonding electron pairs from adjacent atoms of same molecule is called bond angle. We will discuss the bond angle of NH2OH.

The bond angle of H-N-H is 107⁰, H-N-O is 103.3˚and N-O-H is 101.4˚. The lone pair of electrons present in the central nitrogen atom creates repulsion which makes NH2OH deviates their bond angle.

Bond angle of NH2OH
Bond angle of NH2OH from Wikimedia commons

NH2OH lewis structure octet rule

Octet rule states, the atoms attempt to have nobel gas configuration in the outermost shell to attain stability. Let us explore more about in detail.

The nitrogen and oxygen atom present in NH2OH follows octet rule. Six bonded electrons and two non-bonded electrons present on nitrogen atom makes octet. Central O atom contains 4 bonding electron and four lone pair of electrons makes it octet.

NH2OH lewis structure lone pairs

Lone pair of electrons are the outermost electrons which are unshared with another atom. We will discuss lone pair electrons of NH2OH.

Total three lone pair electrons are present in Lewis structure of NH2OH. Nitrogen atom present in NH2OH has one lone pair of electrons. Two lone pair of electrons is present in oxygen atom and there is no lone pair of electrons are present on hydrogen atom in NH2OH molecule.

NH2OH valence electrons

The valence electrons are the outermost electrons which gives idea about formation of bonds. The valence electrons of hydroxylamine has discussed below.

The valence electron of NH2OH is 14.

  • Nitrogen: Its Electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3 hence Outermost electrons present in the N atom is 5
  • Hydrogen: This atom has only one valence electron exists on its outermost shell.
  • Oxygen: six electrons exists on its outermost shell.

Since three hydrogen atom present in hydroxylamine therefore the total number of valence electrons of NH2OH is 5+1(3)+6=14.

NH2OH hybridization

Hybridization is the process of intermixing two atomic orbitals, having equivalent energy which results to form a new hybrid orbitals. The hybridization of NH2OH given below.

NH2OH forms sp3 hybridization. The central nitrogen atom present in the hydroxylamine is bonded to three atom and it has one lone pair of electron. Therefore, steric number of nitrogen atom present in NH2OH is 4 which represents sp3 hybridization.

Is NH2OH a solid?

The atoms of solid have definite shape which are bound together in a regular pattern. We will discuss in detail.

NH2OH is a solid. It appears in white crystalline form which are arranged uniformly. The atoms present in hydroxylamine arranged in three dimensional structure in a highly regular microscopic pattern. They have sharp melting point of 33.05˚.

Is NH2OH soluble in water?

Solubility is defined as higher amount of solute particle has to dissolve in a solvent.

NH2OH is soluble in water. The solute particle present in the hydroxylamine is polar in nature, which can able to dissolve in a polar solvent like water. The formation of hydrogen bond with water molecules makes most of the solute particle will dissolve easily in water at 20˚C.

Is NH2OH polar or nonpolar?

Polar molecules are electrically charged molecule which generates dipole on opposite side whereas nonpolar molecules are not have electrical poles.

NH2OH is polar in nature. The electronegative difference of this molecule is more than 0.5 to 0.9 which is considered as polar molecule. Central N atom is bonded to two H atom and one O atom. The electronegative difference of N and H atom is 0.9 and difference in electronegative of N and O is 0.5.

Why NH2OH is polar?

NH2OH is polar in nature. Because central nitrogen contains one lone pair of electrons, in which bonds arranged not symmetrically which creates some dipole in it. Thus it is polar in nature.

Is NH2OH a molecular compound?

Molecular compounds tells about the number of atoms which are bonded together in a molecule.

NH2OH is a molecular compound. The atoms present in the hydroxylamine are covalently bonded to nitrogen atom. The Covalent bonds are formed by sharing their outermost electrons in such a way that a bond will forms between pairs of atoms.

Is NH2OH an acid or base?

The acid is the one which are donating a proton whereas, base is the one which accepts a proton.

NH2OH is a base. The presence of hydroxyl group makes this molecule basic. When this molecule is dissolve in water, the high reactive electronegative element of nitrogen atom able to detach proton from water by leaving hydroxyl group makes alkaline solution.

Is NH2OH an electrolyte?

Electrolytes are the substance on dissolution of water gives rise to electrically conducting solution. Let us talk about this.

NH2OH is an electrolyte. It dissociated into water to give two charged ions namely NH3OH+ and OHions which are electrically conducting in nature.

                              NH2OH+H2O ⇋ NH3OH++OH

Is NH2OH a salt?

When acid neutralize the base in a chemical reaction forms the acid. We will explore in detail.

NH2OH is not a salt. In the formation of hydroxylamine no neutralization reaction occurs. Salts are ionic compounds, which are formed when acid reacts with base. But NH2OH is not an ionic compound rather than it is a molecular compound.

Is NH2OH ionic or covalent?

Ionic compound contains ions which are held together by electrostatic force. Sharing of electrons takes place in covalent compound.

NH2OH is covalent in nature. The presence of covalent bonds makes the hydroxylamine molecule covalent. Three covalent bonds are formed with one central nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom. Here sharing of electron takes place in this molecule.


NH2OH is unstable inorganic compound which is highly sensitive when it is exposed in atmosphere. The steric number of this molecule is four. The atoms are held together by covalent bonds makes them covalent compounds.

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