5 Easy Steps on MgO Lewis Structure,Hybridization (Solved!)

Magnesium oxide (MgO) consists of magnesium (Mg) and oxygen (O) atoms, each with 2 and 6 valence electrons, respectively. The Lewis structure represents MgO as an ionic compound, with Mg losing two electrons to form Mg²⁺ and O gaining those two electrons to form O²⁻. This electron transfer results in a stable octet for both ions. In the crystalline structure, each Mg²⁺ ion is surrounded by six O²⁻ ions in an octahedral coordination, and each O²⁻ ion is coordinated by six Mg²⁺ ions, leading to a cubic close-packed arrangement. This ionic bonding contributes to MgO’s high melting point and electrical insulation properties.

A common form of magnesium oxide is magnesia, which is formed by calcining minerals found in nature. It has a molar mass of 40.3 g/mol. The density of MgO is 3.58g/cm3.

Magnesium hydroxide is created when magnesium and water are reacted (MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2), even if the process can be stopped by drying out the fluid by heating it. Let us discuss the facts and characteristics of the MgO lewis structure below.

MgO lewis structure
MgO lewis structure

How to draw Mgo lewis structure?

Lewis dot structure demonstrates how cations and anions are formed by giving or accepting electrons. The steps for sketching the MgO Lewis structure are as follows:

Step1: Counting the number of valence electrons in MgO that is used in bonding 

This structure has an overall valence electron total of 8=2+6. One Mg atom and one O2 atom are taken part in the mgo Lewis structure valence electron calculation. While oxygen has six valence electrons, magnesium only has two. So, Both are involved in ionic bonding as the respective Mg2+ and O2- ions.

Step 2: Locating the Central atom

There is an ionic compound formation in which one magnesium atom and one oxygen atom participate in the mgo Lewis structure. By rule, the atom at the centre of the electric field is the least electronegative atom. The compound does not share electrons in this situation, so no central atom is present.

Step3: Bonding between Mg and O atoms

  1. Ionic bonds are generated between the atoms of magnesium and oxygen due to their mutual attraction.
  2. Due to the duplet rule’s association with the first group of the periodic table, magnesium atoms in this situation can satisfy their octet requirement.
  3. However, oxygen behaves differently because it is a member of the p-block and is therefore different from magnesium in the periodic table. 
  4. Due to its higher electronegativity, oxygen may add two extra electrons to its existing six valence electrons. 
  5. Ionic bonds are created due to the magnesium transfer of two electrons to the 3s subshell of oxygen.

Step:4 Now sketch the magnesium oxide (MgO) Lewis structure:

The MgO formed an ionic compound that shows; Magnesium is a cation because it has a 2+ positive charge, whereas oxygen is an anion. After all, it has a 2– negative charge. The image below will demonstrate this.

47b2acf7 3d26 4481 86f0 f564e15e0b36 1
MgO Lewis structure

MgO lewis structure formal charge

The formal charge in any Lewis structure is a formal charge calculation, which verifies the molecule’s stability. Let us look at the steps used to determine the same.

The formal charge on MgO is zero. By using the formula, calculate the formal charge of the MgO molecule. Formal Charge(Cf) =Number of valence electrons(Nv) – Number of nonbonding electrons(Nb) – Total number of bonding electrons / 2.

  • The formal charge of Mg = +2.
  • The formal charge of the O = -2.
  • Total formal charge= 0.

Mgo lewis structure resonance

Resonance is a significant phenomenon in every compound created by exchanging electrons. Let us talk about it in terms of the mgo Lewis structure.

Mgo Lewis structure has no resonance structure because MgO does not have electrons for the movements.

Mgo valence electrons

Valence electrons in the Lewis structure of MgO are a starting point for determining its properties. Let us define the valence electron to the Lewis structure of MgO.

The Lewis structure of magnesium oxide has a total of 8 valence electrons. In this structure, Mg has two valance shell electrons while oxygen has six. The electron configuration 2,8 is created when magnesium has its two valance electrons, and the E.C 2,8,8 is formed when oxygen takes those two electrons.

MgO lewis structure lone pairs

The lone pair of electrons from the central atom plays a vital role in the Lewis dot electron symbol. Let us discuss the same idea while keeping the mgo Lewis structure in mind.

In MgO, the lewis structure does not have any lone pair electrons. Because it has two ions, Mg2+ and O2- and is ionic.

MgO lewis structure octet rule

Octet rules are stability requirements followed by elements sharing, losing, or gaining electrons. Let us examine the mgo Lewis structure’s octet rule.

The oxygen atoms and magnesium in the MgO Lewis structure fulfil the octet rule. The condition transfers two electrons because oxygen only needs two electrons.

Magnesium, a metal with two electrons in its valence shell, gives these two electrons to oxygen. Oxygen is a gas with six electrons in its valence shell to complete its octet. It is formed an ionic connection.

MgO lewis structure shape

Mgo is an ionic compound so coordination geometry can explain the structure. Let us understand the Mgo lewis structure in detail.

The shape of the MgO lewis structure is octahedral. Which states that the crystal lattice is due to coordination chemistry. Its hows cubic crystal with high melting temperature is a result of its tightly bound form.

This will demonstrate the cubic crystal structure of MgO and its lattice constant of 4.212. It will be displayed using the theory of the crystal lattice of an ionic molecule.

MgO hybridisation

The process of hybridisation involves combining orbitals to create new orbitals with entirely different energies. Let us see in detail the MgO Lewis structure hybridisation.

Mgo does not show hybridisation because both of the involved atoms in magnesium oxide (MgO) are non-directional ions.

MgO bond angle

Compound bond angles are influenced by their molecular geometry and shape. Let us discuss more Mgo bond angles.

MgO lewis structure has a bond angle of 90 degrees, thus having a cubic crystal structure. It is due to the similarity of MgO with NaCl cubic crystal structure.

Is Mgo solid?

Mgo works at high temperatures, and MgO is chemically and physically stable. Let us discuss it more.

MgO is a hygroscopic solid, white as well as crystalline. The chemical found in rocks includes dolomite, silicate, and magnesite, which consists of MgO. As a result, it is mainly employed in refractory materials.

Why is MgO solid?

A white substance called Magnesium Oxide (MgO) is combustible and can affect the lungs when inhaled. Learn more about MgO solid.

MgO is solid because powerful bonds bind the ionic compound’s constituent particles. Mg and O are metal and Non-metal that combines in the air to form an ionic compound.

This incredibly effective packing creates stable bonding and enables local charge neutralisation.

Is MgO soluble in water?

Mgo is an oxide; it generally cannot dissolve in water. Let us analyse whether mgo is soluble or not.

MgO ions are less soluble in water because they require much more energy to separate. In water, magnesium oxide is only slightly soluble because positive ions and water molecules are attracted to one another on a molecular level.

Why does MgO not dissolve in water?

Magnesium oxide is relatively tiny, but when it reacts with water, the attraction forces are so powerful that they can be broken apart. Let us look at the reason behind it.

MgO is also insoluble in water due to the firmly bound atoms. Magnesium quickly gives up its electrons because of its low ionisation energy. The high lattice energy of MgO is approximately 4000 KJ/mol.

Is MgO molecular?

The structure and sharing patterns can be used to identify the ionic or molecular character. Here is a description of the MgO Lewis structure.

MgO is not a molecular compound; it is an ionic one. Magnesium oxide (MgO) forms an ionic bond due to its significant difference in electronegativity compared to oxygen (3.44).

Why is MgO ionic?

The molecular or ionic character of the Lewis structure of magnesium oxide is determined by the type of elements involved in bonding. Let us look at the factors involved.

Mgo is an ionic compound because magnesium transfers electrons to oxygen at two outer shells. The only thing that holds Mgo together is the electrical attraction between the Mg+2 cation and the O-2 anion.

Is MgO polar or nonpolar?

The MgO Lewis structure’s geometry and the constituent components’ electronegativity affect its polarity. Let us analyse it further.

Magnesium oxide is polar because electrons are transferred from magnesium to oxygen. The idea of polarity does not apply to magnesium oxide due to not covalent bonding.

Why is MgO polar?

A molecule’s polarity aids in determining how reactions connected to it will be used in the future. Let us learn about the polarity of the MgO lewis structure.

Magnesium oxide is a polar molecule because it exhibits the separation of charges where oxygen is an anion and magnesium is a cation.


Magnesium oxide is formed by electrostatic forces of attraction; Mg is a cation as it has a 2+ charge, while O is an anion as it has a -2 charge. It is, therefore, possible to study magnesium oxide molecules using crystal lattice structure analysis rather than molecular geometry.

Also Read: