Magnetic flux and voltage are closely related concepts in physics, particularly in the study of electromagnetic induction. Magnetic flux is a measure of the amount of magnetic field passing through a given area, while voltage, or electromotive force (EMF), is the potential difference that drives the flow of electric charge.
Understanding Magnetic Flux
Magnetic flux, denoted by the symbol Φ, is a scalar quantity that represents the total amount of magnetic field passing through a given surface or area. It is defined as the product of the magnetic field strength (B) and the area (A) over which the field is measured, as shown in the following equation:
Φ = B × A
The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb), which is equivalent to teslasquare meters (T·m²).
Magnetic flux can be visualized as the number of magnetic field lines passing through a given area. The more field lines that pass through the area, the greater the magnetic flux. Conversely, if the magnetic field is weaker or the area is smaller, the magnetic flux will be reduced.
Factors Affecting Magnetic Flux
Several factors can influence the magnetic flux in a given situation:
 Magnetic Field Strength (B): The stronger the magnetic field, the greater the magnetic flux.
 Area (A): The larger the area over which the magnetic field is measured, the greater the magnetic flux.
 Angle between Magnetic Field and Area: The magnetic flux is maximized when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the area (i.e., the angle between the field and the area is 90 degrees). As the angle deviates from 90 degrees, the magnetic flux decreases.
 Permeability of the Medium: The magnetic flux can be affected by the permeability of the material or medium through which the magnetic field is passing. Materials with higher permeability, such as iron, can enhance the magnetic flux.
Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction
Faraday’s law of induction is a fundamental theorem in physics that describes the relationship between magnetic flux and voltage. It states that the voltage induced in a closed loop is equal to the negative rate of change of the magnetic flux through that loop. Mathematically, Faraday’s law can be expressed as:
V = N × (ΔΦ/Δt)
Where:
– V is the induced voltage (in volts)
– N is the number of turns in the loop
– ΔΦ is the change in magnetic flux (in webers)
– Δt is the time interval over which the flux change occurs (in seconds)
The negative sign in the equation indicates that the induced voltage opposes the change in magnetic flux, in accordance with Lenz’s law.
Lenz’s Law
Lenz’s law is a fundamental principle of electromagnetic induction that states that the direction of the induced current is such that it creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in flux that produced it. This law is a direct consequence of the conservation of energy and is typically incorporated into Faraday’s law with a minus sign.
Lenz’s law can be summarized as follows:
The direction of the induced current is such that it creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in the original magnetic field that produced the induced current.
This means that the induced current will flow in a direction that creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in the original magnetic field. This is a direct consequence of the conservation of energy, as the induced current must do work to oppose the change in the original magnetic field.
Measuring Induced Voltage
The voltage induced by a changing magnetic flux can be measured using a variety of experimental methods. Here are a few common techniques:
Search Coil Method
One common method is to use a search coil, which is a small coil of wire connected to an oscilloscope or other measuring device. By moving the search coil through a magnetic field, a voltage can be induced that is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux. The induced voltage can be measured and used to calculate the magnetic flux.
Current Balance Method
Another method for measuring the voltage induced by a changing magnetic field is to use a current balance, which is a device that measures the force exerted on a currentcarrying wire in a magnetic field. By comparing the force measured by the current balance to the force predicted by Faraday’s law, the voltage induced by the changing magnetic field can be calculated.
Induction Coil Method
Induction coils, also known as transformers, can be used to measure the induced voltage. When a changing magnetic field passes through a coil of wire, it induces a voltage in the coil. By measuring the voltage across the coil, the rate of change of the magnetic flux can be determined.
Practical Applications of Magnetic Flux and Voltage
The relationship between magnetic flux and voltage has numerous practical applications in various fields, including:

Electrical Generators: Electrical generators, such as those used in power plants, rely on the principle of electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The rotating motion of the generator’s rotor creates a changing magnetic flux, which induces a voltage in the stator windings.

Transformers: Transformers use the principle of electromagnetic induction to change the voltage level of an alternating current (AC) electrical system. The changing magnetic flux in the transformer’s primary winding induces a voltage in the secondary winding, allowing for the transformation of voltage levels.

Induction Motors: Induction motors, commonly used in industrial applications, operate on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The changing magnetic flux in the stator windings induces a current in the rotor, which in turn creates a magnetic field that interacts with the stator field, causing the rotor to spin.

Magnetic Sensors: Magnetic sensors, such as Hall effect sensors and magnetometers, use the relationship between magnetic flux and voltage to measure and detect magnetic fields. These sensors have applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical.

Eddy Current Brakes: Eddy current brakes use the principle of electromagnetic induction to create a braking force. When a conductive material, such as a metal disc, moves through a magnetic field, the changing magnetic flux induces eddy currents in the material, which in turn create a magnetic field that opposes the motion, resulting in a braking force.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI machines use the principle of electromagnetic induction to generate images of the human body. The changing magnetic fields in the MRI machine induce voltages in the body’s tissues, which are then used to create detailed images.
These are just a few examples of the many practical applications of the relationship between magnetic flux and voltage in various fields of science and technology.
Conclusion
Magnetic flux and voltage are closely related concepts in physics, with the voltage induced in a loop being proportional to the negative rate of change of the magnetic flux through that loop. Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law are fundamental principles that describe this relationship, and a variety of experimental methods can be used to measure the voltage induced by a changing magnetic field.
Understanding the principles of magnetic flux and voltage is crucial in many areas of science and technology, from electrical power generation to medical imaging. By mastering these concepts, students and professionals can gain a deeper understanding of the underlying physics and apply this knowledge to solve realworld problems.
References
 Valparaiso University, “Chapter 16: Faraday’s Law of Induction” (https://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=phys_astro_fac_pub)
 YouTube, “Search Coil Experiment (measure magnetic field strength)” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ot8OLm6oBrM)
 Khan Academy, “What is Faraday’s law?” (https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/electricityandmagnetism/faradayslaw/v/faradayslaw1)
 Electronics Stack Exchange, “What would a voltmeter measure if you had an electromotive force generated by a moving magnetic field?” (https://electronics.stackexchange.com/questions/293524/whatwouldavoltmetermeasureifyouhadanelectromotiveforcegeneratedbyam)
 CliffsNotes, “Faraday’s Law (pdf)” (https://www.cliffsnotes.com/studyguides/physics/electricityandmagnetism/faradayslaw/faradayslaw)
Hi..I am Indrani Banerjee. I completed my bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering. I am an enthusiastic person and I am a person who is positive about every aspect of life. I like to read Books and listen to music.