Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density are fundamental concepts in electromagnetism that describe the behavior of magnetic fields. Magnetic flux is a scalar quantity that measures the amount of magnetic field crossing perpendicular to a certain surface, while magnetic flux density is a vector quantity that represents the force per unit of sensitive element.
Understanding Magnetic Flux
Magnetic flux, denoted by Φ or ΦB, is defined as the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B over a given surface. Mathematically, it can be expressed as:
Φ = ∫∫ B⋅dA
Where:
– Φ is the magnetic flux (in webers, Wb)
– B is the magnetic field strength (in teslas, T)
– dA is the infinitesimal surface element (in square meters, m²)
The SI unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb), and the CGS unit is the maxwell (Mx). Magnetic flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils, and it calculates the magnetic flux from the change of voltage on the coils.
Factors Affecting Magnetic Flux
The magnetic flux through a surface is influenced by several factors:
 Magnetic Field Strength: The stronger the magnetic field, the greater the magnetic flux.
 Surface Area: The larger the surface area, the greater the magnetic flux.
 Angle of the Surface: The magnetic flux is maximized when the surface is perpendicular to the magnetic field (i.e., the angle between the surface normal and the magnetic field is 90 degrees).
Magnetic Flux Density
Magnetic flux density, also known as magnetic induction or magnetic field density, is a vector quantity that represents the force per unit of sensitive element, which in this case is a current. It is denoted by the symbol B and its SI unit is the tesla (T).
The magnetic flux density through a surface is proportional to the magnetic field strength and the number of turns in the coil, as described by the equation:
B = Φ / A
Where:
– B is the magnetic flux density (in teslas, T)
– Φ is the magnetic flux (in webers, Wb)
– A is the crosssectional area of the surface (in square meters, m²)
Relationship between Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density
The relationship between magnetic flux and magnetic flux density is nonlinear, historydependent, and anisotropic. This means that the magnetic field strength and flux density are not always directly proportional, and their relationship can vary depending on the medium and the history of the magnetic field.
The magnetic flux density is a vector quantity, which means it has both magnitude and direction. The direction of the magnetic flux density is determined by the direction of the magnetic field lines, which can be visualized using iron filings or a compass.
Magnetic Flux Linkage
Magnetic flux linkage, denoted by Ψ, is a related concept that describes the total magnetic flux that links a coil or a circuit. It is defined as the product of the magnetic flux and the number of turns in the coil:
Ψ = N × Φ
Where:
– Ψ is the magnetic flux linkage (in weberturns, Wbturns)
– N is the number of turns in the coil
– Φ is the magnetic flux (in webers, Wb)
Magnetic flux linkage is an important concept in the analysis of transformers, generators, and other electromagnetic devices.
Practical Applications of Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density
Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density have numerous practical applications in various fields, including:
 Electrical Machines: Magnetic flux and flux density are crucial in the design and operation of electrical machines, such as motors, generators, and transformers.
 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI technology relies on the manipulation of magnetic fields and the measurement of magnetic flux density to create detailed images of the human body.
 Magnetic Sensors: Magnetic sensors, such as Hall effect sensors and magnetometers, measure the magnetic flux density to detect the presence, strength, and direction of magnetic fields.
 Magnetic Recording: Magnetic recording technologies, such as hard disk drives and magnetic tape, use magnetic flux density to store and retrieve digital information.
 Particle Accelerators: Particle accelerators, such as cyclotrons and synchrotrons, use magnetic fields and flux density to guide and control the motion of charged particles.
Numerical Examples and Problems
 Example 1: A circular coil with 100 turns has a radius of 10 cm. If the magnetic flux through the coil is 0.5 Wb, calculate the magnetic flux density.
Given:
– Number of turns, N = 100
– Radius of the coil, r = 10 cm = 0.1 m
– Magnetic flux, Φ = 0.5 Wb
Calculation:
– Area of the coil, A = π × r² = π × (0.1 m)² = 0.0314 m²
– Magnetic flux density, B = Φ / A = 0.5 Wb / 0.0314 m² = 15.92 T
 Example 2: A rectangular coil with 50 turns has dimensions of 20 cm × 30 cm. The coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.8 T, and the angle between the normal to the coil and the magnetic field is 45 degrees. Calculate the magnetic flux through the coil.
Given:
– Number of turns, N = 50
– Length, l = 20 cm = 0.2 m
– Width, w = 30 cm = 0.3 m
– Magnetic field strength, B = 0.8 T
– Angle between the normal to the coil and the magnetic field, θ = 45 degrees
Calculation:
– Area of the coil, A = l × w = 0.2 m × 0.3 m = 0.06 m²
– Magnetic flux, Φ = B × A × cos(θ) = 0.8 T × 0.06 m² × cos(45°) = 0.0339 Wb

Numerical Problem 1: A solenoid with 500 turns and a crosssectional area of 0.02 m² is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 1.2 T. Calculate the magnetic flux through the solenoid.

Numerical Problem 2: A circular coil with 80 turns has a radius of 15 cm. If the magnetic flux density through the coil is 0.5 T, find the magnetic flux through the coil.

Numerical Problem 3: A rectangular coil with 100 turns has dimensions of 25 cm × 35 cm. The coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field of 0.6 T, and the angle between the normal to the coil and the magnetic field is 30 degrees. Calculate the magnetic flux linkage of the coil.
Figures and Data Points
 Figure 1: Illustration of magnetic flux through a surface.
 Figure 2: Relationship between magnetic flux, magnetic flux density, and the number of turns in a coil.
 Table 1: Comparison of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density units in the SI and CGS systems.
Quantity  SI Unit  CGS Unit 

Magnetic Flux (Φ)  Weber (Wb)  Maxwell (Mx) 
Magnetic Flux Density (B)  Tesla (T)  Gauss (G) 
 Data Point 1: The Earth’s magnetic field has an average flux density of approximately 25 to 65 microteslas (μT) at the surface.
 Data Point 2: The magnetic flux density in a typical household magnet is around 0.01 to 0.1 T.
 Data Point 3: The magnetic flux density in a medical MRI machine can range from 1.5 to 3 T.
Conclusion
Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density are fundamental concepts in electromagnetism that are crucial for understanding the behavior of magnetic fields. By understanding the relationships between these quantities, as well as their practical applications and numerical examples, students and professionals can gain a deeper understanding of the principles of electromagnetism and their realworld applications.
References
 Magnetic Flux – Wikipedia
 Magnetic Flux Density – ScienceDirect
 Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Linkage – StudySmarter
 Magnetic Flux Density – emagnetica
Hello, I am Deeksha Dinesh, currently pursuing postgraduation in Physics with a specialization in the field of Astrophysics. I like to deliver concepts in a simpler way for the readers.